Home comforts during

the Covid-19 lockdown


This report summarises findings of a national survey of 2,500 households (representing 7,200 people) aimed at understanding how well or how poorly the design of our homes and their immediate neighbourhoods supported us during the period of coronavirus lockdown.

The intention was to understand what we can learn from this period of unprecedented stress on our home environments. The findings offer insights into how we should be designing or adapting them in the future in order that they are more resilient and better able to support happy and healthy lifestyles.

Findings are grouped according to the following themes:

1. About you during lockdown

2. Your home during lockdown

3. Your neighbourhood during lockdown

4. Your community during lockdown

A Place Alliance report, with invaluable assistance received from Esther Kurland and Susan May of Urban Design London and Lynne Sullivan of the Good Homes Alliance. Thanks also to Civic Voice, the Town & Country Planning Association and Urban Design Group.

The research was presented by Professor Carmona at the “Design Now: what you need to know” event on the 7th of December 2020 as part of RTPI Online Events.

Here you can find the full recording of the event.

VIdeo recorded and produced by RTPI.

Main findings

Based on 2510 responses, the research concluded:


Download the Research


1 – Most are comfortable, but many are not

  • Millions of uncomfortable people: Two thirds of people felt comfortable or very comfortable during lockdown, but a sixth were either uncomfortable or very uncomfortable. Extrapolated across the UK this would represent 10.7 million uncomfortable people.
  • Houses are more comfortable than flats: Those living in houses (of any type) were more comfortable than those living in apartments, with those living in mid- (5-10 storey) or high-rise blocks (over 11 stories) being the least comfortable of all.
  • The newest dwellings are the most uncomfortable: Dwellings were progressively less comfortable the newer they were, with the most recently built homes (built between 2010 and 2020) recording the lowest proportions of comfortable residents.
  • Social renters suffered the most: Tenure was the strongest predictor of comfort in the home. Owner occupiers were the most comfortable, followed by those in the private rented sector. Those renting from local authorities or housing associations were the least comfortable by some margin.
  • Key workers were least comfortable: Perversely, those working from home during lockdown were more comfortable than those working away from home (the so-called key workers). residents.

2 – Why are some less comfortable than others?

  • Access to private open space is critical: Access to private open space from the home was the strongest design-based predictor of comfort. Households with a private garden or terrace space were the most comfortable, followed by those with a private balcony or shared garden. Households with no access to any sort of private open space were least comfortable.
  • More space means more comfort: Dwellings were noticeably more comfortable the more rooms they had per occupant, whilst dwellings with 5 or more occupants were noticeably less comfortable during lockdown.
  • Most (but not all) work comfortably from home: Only 7% struggled to work at home, with social renters prominent amongst them. Common problems included a physical lack of space, difficulties in separating home and work life, poor home technology (notably wifi), and poor physical conditions (lighting, environmental conditions, inappropriate furniture, lack of storage, etc.).
  • Internal design matters: Preferences for open plan over cellular arrangements within the home vary, although the pressures of lockdown have led to a desire amongst many for a greater degree of cellularity, including for a dedicated home office space. Good environmental conditions, fresh air, daylight into the home and good noise insulation, were widely seen as fundamental.
  • We want more: Even for those with good space standards our aspirations are typically first, for access to better (larger) private external space followed by, second, more living space in the home.


3 – Our neighbourhoods serve us well (most of us)

  • A minority suffer poorly designed neighbourhoods: Almost three quarters of residents felt that their local neighbourhood met their everyday needs well or very well during lockdown, approaching a quarter that it was OK, and just 4% felt this was not the case. Extrapolated across the UK this would nevertheless represent a population of 2.7 million people.
  • Urban is just as good: Comparing levels of satisfaction with neighbourhoods across rural, suburban and urban areas revealed very similar levels of satisfaction.
    High-rise comes out poorly: Neighbourhoods composing houses (whether detached, semi-detached or terraced) score markedly better than those with apartment blocks, particularly those with high rise blocks.
  • Newer neighbourhoods come out worse: The data showed a progressive deterioration of the neighbourhood experience of lockdown in the most recently established neighbourhoods.
  • Owner occupiers are happiest with their neighbourhoods: Again, owner occupiers scored their neighbourhoods most highly, followed by private renters. Those renting from housing associations and particularly from local authorities scored their neighbourhoods least well.
  • Poor space at home and around: For residents with no or only limited access to private open space (e.g. a balcony), the wider neighbourhood was often failing to fill the gap left by their lack of access to open space at home.

4 – Green, mixed-use, less-trafficked and connected neighbourhoods are key

  • Parks and greenery are fundamental: Proximity to a park or significant green space (within a 5 minute walk) was the strongest predictor of satisfaction with neighbourhoods during lockdown, with satisfaction dropping off markedly the further away open space was and significantly when over 10 minutes. The green (landscape) qualities of the environment, including green streets and garden spaces, were seen as fundamental by residents.
  • A 5 to 10 minute city: Factors relating to the presence of local facilities (shops and services) within easy reach of the home and large shops not too far away were almost as strong as a predictor of satisfaction. Satisfaction peaked at 5 minutes and dropped away markedly over 10 minutes.
  • Space for walking and cycling on quieter streets: The availability of less trafficked streets and good walking and cycle routes from the home were particularly prized during the lockdown, as were wider pavements where they existed.
  • COVID is an opportunity: There is a strong desire to use the crisis of COVID to deliver better environment standards and clear long-term health and quality of life benefits through a permanent switch in modes of travel, a material change in the quality of streets and open spaces, and a safer and more pleasant environment.


5 – A variable sense of community (pre-COVID)

  • Community feeling is typically rudimentary: Most respondents (two thirds) felt that a tangible but weak sense of community existed before lockdown. The remainder split between those for whom the feeling was either strong or weak, or in excess of 10 million people in each category if extrapolated across the UK.
  • Rural is better for community: Rural areas seemed to exhibit a significantly stronger sense of community.
    Building higher means less community: Apartment blocks have a much weaker sense of community than houses and the sense of community reduces the higher blocks become.
  • Older means more community and newer less: The older the housing stock, the stronger the sense of community.
  • Churn reduces sense of community: The weakest sense of community – perhaps explained by the higher rates of churn in the sector – were occupiers in the privately rented sector, whilst owner occupiers report the strongest sense.

6 – COVID has boosted community feeling, but not equally

  • Community has helped us through: Approaching a third of respondents suggested that the sense of community had changed a lot during lockdown, and a little over half that it had changed a little. Those at home but not working during lockdown experienced the change most keenly, a group incorporating older groups who were most likely to benefit from assistance.
  • Community builds community: All categories of dwelling and neighbourhood saw an increase in community feeling and support during lockdown, but those with the strongest pre-exiting sense of community saw it reinforced most.
  • Higher, newer and social come off worse: People living in rural areas, in houses (as opposed to apartments), in older housing and in owner occupied dwellings experienced a greater deepening of community support. Residents in high rises, post-2010 homes, and local authority owned developments experienced the smallest boost in community feeling.
  • Online can boost community: Residents strongly value a community spirit and nice neighbours, and during lockdown this partly expressed itself in the emergence of local online social networks which people value.
  • A silver lining: Respondents reflected on a period in which people seemed friendlier (despite social distancing), in which the environment seemed to recover and even thrive, and in which they had more time for things that matter, the family, exercise, the garden, neighbours and the community.

A small number of simple but fundamental recommendations can be made:


  • All new homes and newly converted homes should have mandated access to private open space, even if just to a balcony.
  • Without exception, all new and newly converted homes should be built to decent national minimum space standards such as those in the Nationally Described Space Standards and in a manner that prioritises good environmental conditions in the home: access to fresh air, daylight and good insulation against the transmission of noise.
  • The Nationally Described Space Standards should be amended to reflect working from home needs, and all new and newly converted homes should be built with provision for occupiers to comfortably work from home.
  • Greater care is required when building high. People in the survey were happier when closer to the ground suggesting that we should only build high if we can simultaneously deliver the other recommendations in this report, both at the home and neighbourhood scales.


  • The higher and the denser we build, the greater the need for high quality parks and green spaces and local facilities within the neighbourhood.
  • The aspiration should be for everyone to live within five minutes walk of a significant green space or park, and never more than 10 minutes.
  • The aspiration should be for everyone to live within five minutes walk of a basic range of local facilities, including shops, and never more than 10 minutes.
  • Homes, facilities, and green spaces should be linked by connected, walkable, and green streets and by high quality walking and cycling infrastructure with, wherever possible, low levels of traffic.


  • To encourage a stronger sense of community in newer and denser developments, shared public and private spaces for safe interaction and play should be built into schemes, as well as convenient access to local amenities and facilities.
  • Social housing should enjoy the same essential amenities as housing for sale or to privately rent, including access to the qualities recommended above across dwelling and neighbourhood scales.
  • Giving stronger security of tenure to renters in the private rental market would help to reduce churn and build a stronger sense of community and greater well-being.

About the Research:

Why did you conduct the research?

From the 23rd March 2020 the UK was put into lockdown in an unprecedented attempt to fight the spread and impact of Covid-19. Initially the British public were under strict instructions to remain at home, and only to venture out when absolutely necessary for food, medicine or daily exercise. Until a gradual easing began from the 10th May onwards, families, couples, sharers, and individuals were (and in many cases still are) spending more time at home – and together – than ever before.

Our worlds shrank physically to our homes and their immediate neighbourhoods, yet the roles we needed to perform there expanded: working from home, looking after families, home schooling, staying in touch (remotely) with isolated relatives, shopping, exercising, and so on. Evidence started to be published about the social impact of these privations, notably on the country’s deteriorating mental health, physical health, worsening domestic abuse in the home, and general decline in general happiness and well-being.

On these issues only time will tell, but in the short-term the period of lockdown has provided a unique opportunity to stress test our homes and their immediate environments, to gauge how they have performed during this period, whether or not they have supported our everyday needs in these strangest of times, and how we might need to design them or adapt them in the future to build in a greater resilience and capacity to support happy and healthy lives. That was the purpose of the survey reported in this report.

How did you conduct the survey?

In order to get a picture of how well or poorly the design of our home environments – our homes and the neighbourhoods – have been supporting us during the period of Coronavirus lockdown, a short non targeted survey was prepared utilising SurveyMonkey. The survey contained a combination of 25 closed and open questions and was launched in May 2020, initially via a series of professional and civil networks – the Place Alliance, Urban Design London, Good Homes Alliance, Civic Voice, Town & Country Planning Association, and the Urban Design Group – and latterly by word of mouth (or social media).

The closed questions were focused on collecting background information on the otherwise anonymous participants, whilst the open questions focussed on garnering opinions in a manner that would not unduly lead participants responses. Whilst this made the task of analysis much harder, requiring extensive coding and classification of often complex responses, it also gave a greater opportunity for the true voices of participants to come through and avoided colouring the analysis with the pre-conceived perceptions of the researchers, all of whom were also subjected to lockdown.

A total of 2510 responses were collected, 98% of which were from across the UK (92% England, 3.5% Wales, 2% Scotland, 0.5% Northern Ireland), the remainder from overseas. Just over half of the response was from London. 520 responses were incomplete in various ways, typically because some open questions were skipped. Percentages given in this report are therefore percentages of those that completed each question.

Further reading:

The Planner – People should live ‘never more than 10 minutes’ from basic facilities

The Planner – People should live ‘never more than 10 minutes’ from basic facilities

When designing neighbourhoods, the aspiration should be for everyone to live within a five-minute walk of ‘significant’ green space or a park and ‘never be more than 10 minutes’ from basic facilities.

This is one of several recommendations set out in a report – Home Comforts – published by the Place Alliance, which is hosted by UCL, with support from Urban Design London, Good Homes Alliance and the Urban Design Group.



The Conversation – New Research: people living in newer homes found lockdown more difficult

The Conversation – New Research: people living in newer homes found lockdown more difficult

Lockdown provided a unique opportunity to stress-test our homes and their immediate environments, and to gauge whether or not they have supported our everyday needs. Exploring this was the purpose of the Home Comforts survey, conducted by the Place Alliance, a not-for-profit initiative at UCL. The survey was completed by 2,500 households across the UK during the early summer of 2020.

A key finding from this research was that the least comfortable dwellings, least supportive neighbourhoods for everyday needs, and weakest sense of community correlated directly with the age of housing.


Housing Today – Newest homes ‘least comfortable’ during lockdown

Housing Today – Newest homes ‘least comfortable’ during lockdown

Small size and lack of outdoor space made residents less happy with new properties, study by UCL finds

Spending lockdown in a new-build home and neighbourhood has been more difficult than in houses built before 1919, according to a study of 2,500 homeowners.

The research for the Place Alliance group, conducted by UCL, found that people rated their home as less comfortable the newer it was, with those built in the past 10 years ranking the lowest.



UDL Talking Place – Covid-19 Lockdown Interviews

UDL Talking Place – Covid-19 Lockdown Interviews

This interviews were filmed during the UK Covid-19 lock down, and complement Urban Design London 4-part Urban Challenge initiative through which we hope to highlight and support ideas to change the way we design, manage our built environment. Covid Interviews:

  1. Will the way we design and use our homes and buildings change?
  2. Will the way we use our neighbourhoods and town centres change?
  3. Will the way we work and travel change?
  4. Will the structure of our towns and cities change?
  5. Should places change due to Covid?

Find out more about UDL  →

Matthew Carmona Blog – Home comforts: stress testing our homes and neighbourhoods during the Covid-19 lockdown

Matthew Carmona Blog – Home comforts: stress testing our homes and neighbourhoods during the Covid-19 lockdown

Lockdown shrank many of our worlds physically to our homes and their immediate neighbourhoods, yet the roles we needed to perform there expanded, from working from home, to home schooling, to shopping and exercise. Technology has helped to fill key gaps, leading some to ask whether we will ever fully return to the patterns of life that we saw in the pre-Covid era…

Read Prof Matthew Carmona new Blog Post  →