A serious test by Urbed (2014) of the assumption that if you provide less parking, you can build to higher densities and people will own fewer cars and so make ‘sustainable choices’ to walk and use public transport. It draws on a major survey  of new housing in Kent and exploration of resident satisfaction through case studies.

Key findings indicate”Restricting the amount of parking on new estates is an inefficient way of reducing car ownership and use. It only works if on-street parking is strictly controlled. Otherwise people get around the restrictions by parking ‘informally’ on the estate. This is unsightly, dangerous and a cause of tension and conflict. ” The reasons for problems (in suburban areas) are explored and relate strongly to processes of joint-working and the poor application of design guidance.